Online Journal for E&P Geoscientists

See this page in: Hungarian , Russian , Spanish People who ask about carbon 14C dating usually want to know about the radiometric [1] dating methods that are claimed to give millions and billions of years—carbon dating can only give thousands of years. People wonder how millions of years could be squeezed into the biblical account of history. Clearly, such huge time periods cannot be fitted into the Bible without compromising what the Bible says about the goodness of God and the origin of sin, death and suffering —the reason Jesus came into the world See Six Days? Christians , by definition, take the statements of Jesus Christ seriously. This only makes sense with a time-line beginning with the creation week thousands of years ago. It makes no sense at all if man appeared at the end of billions of years. We will deal with carbon dating first and then with the other dating methods. How the carbon clock works Carbon has unique properties that are essential for life on Earth. One rare form has atoms that are 14 times as heavy as hydrogen atoms:

The Age of the Earth

Dating Methods using Radioactive Isotopes Oliver Seely Radiocarbon method The age of ancient artifacts which contain carbon can be determined by a method known as radiocarbon dating. This method is sometimes called C or carbon dating. Carbon is formed in the upper atmosphere by the bombardment of nitrogen by cosmic rays. Cosmic rays are protons, particles and some heavier ions. Other particles, including neutrons, are produced by subsequent collisions.

Radiometric Dating. How radiometric dating works in general. Why methods in general are inaccurate. Why K-Ar dating is inaccurate. The branching ratio problem.

The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years.

We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points.

Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old.

If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question.

Potassium argon dating calculator

Advanced Search Abstract Under particular climatic conditions, tetravalent K-Mn oxides can be formed during terrestrial chemical weathering of Mn ores. Some samples of dated cryptomelane had finely banded textures, and therefore might represent several generations. Total fusion age determinations of several groups of growth bands of a late Oligocene densely layered cryptomelane from the Woodie Woodie Mn deposit NW Australia suggest an averaged growth rate of 0.

However, the growth rate calculated for much of the band sequence is 1.

Radiometric Dating. How radiometric dating works in general. Why methods in general are inaccurate. Why K-Ar dating is inaccurate. The branching ratio problem.

Australopithecus africanus — The word “Australopithecus” means “southern ape. Raymond Dart, professor of anatomy at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, was the first to study these fossils. In at Taung in South Africa, Dart discovered a fossil skull consisting of a full face, teeth and jaws, and an endocranial cast of the brain. The brain size was cc. Its age is currently felt to be around two to three million years old. Dart was convinced that some teeth were man-like and thus concluded a transition between apes and man.

His opinions on the matter of this particular skull were largely scorned by the scientists of this time who considered it nothing more than a young chimpanzee now considered to be about three years of age. The skull was soon known derisively as “Dart’s baby. With Piltdown Man’s human cranium and apelike jaw, it was hard to reconcile it to the Taung Child.

Although Dart gave up fossil hunting for some time, all was not lost. Years after the discovery of the “Taungs child”, as it is known today, Dart and Broom found other Australopithecines at Kromdraii, Swartkrans and Makapansgat.

The Age of the Earth

Dating the Rocks At one point or another, anyone who has worked in Grand Canyon has had these questions posed to them: How long did it take to form? For over thirty years, geologists have used the position and age of lava flows in western Grand Canyon, Toroweap Dam in particular, to constrain the timing of incision of the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon McKee et al. Before our work in western Grand Canyon began in the mid s, nearly all the age constraints on lava flows relied on a technique called potassium-argon dating, also known as K-Ar ages.

K-Ar ages rely on the radioactive decay of potassium to argon gas.

The generally accepted age for the Earth and the rest of the solar system is about billion years (plus or minus about 1%). This value is derived from several.

Karpinskaya subsequently synthesized muscovite from a colloidal gel under similar argon pressures and temperatures, the resultant muscovite retaining up to 0. These experiments show that under certain conditions argon can be incorporated into minerals and rocks that are supposed to exclude argon when they crystallize. Applications to the Mt. Ngauruhoe Andesite Flows Therefore, the analytical results from the very recent — andesite flows at Mt. Ngauruhoe volcano and were trapped in the andesite as it cooled.

Dymond obtained similar results on four deep-sea basalt pillows from near the axis of the East Pacific Rise. In basalt pillows the K content increases from the margin to a maximum at an intermediate distance into the pillows, whereas holocrystalline basalts show a decrease of K inward from the margin. Seidemann also determined that sediment cover is not a significant barrier to the diffusion of K into basalt.

For example, the surfaces of the flows would have cooled more rapidly to crusts on top of the still molten flow interiors, which would certainly have been the case with the August 18, , flow that was reported as being 18 m thick. Furthermore, the overburden pressure within the deep interiors of such thick flows would likewise inhibit degassing of the lava as it cooled.

But this sealing was probably short-lived, because today the flows mostly outcrop as piles of pieces of andesite that look like rubble typical aa lavas. The continued flow of the lavas down the sides of the volcano would have broken up the crusts as soon as they congealed, as would contraction with cooling, thus enabling the molten interiors to degas as they cooled. So the speed of cooling was likely the most relevant factor, and this would have varied laterally and vertically within the flows, even at localised scales of a few centimeters.

Argon–argon dating

Reference to a case where the given method did not work This is perhaps the most common objection of all. Creationists point to instances where a given method produced a result that is clearly wrong, and then argue that therefore all such dates may be ignored. Such an argument fails on two counts: First, an instance where a method fails to work does not imply that it does not ever work. The question is not whether there are “undatable” objects, but rather whether or not all objects cannot be dated by a given method.

Piltdown Man–Eanthropus dawsoni or “dawn man.” Discovered in by Charles Dawson, a medical doctor and amateur paleontologist. Dawson found a mandible and a small piece of a skull in a gravel pit near Piltdown England.

Pro Radiometric dating is the method for establishing the age of objects by measuring the levels of radioisotopes in the sample. One example is carbon dating. Carbon 14 is created by cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. It decays to nitrogen 14 with a half life of years. C14 is continually being created and decaying, leading to an equilibrium state in the atmosphere. When the carbon dioxide, containing C14 as well as stable C12 and C13, is taken in by plants it is no longer exposed to the intense cosmic ray bombardment in the upper atmosphere, so the carbon 14 isotope decays without being replenished.

Measuring the ratio of C14 to C12 and C13 therefore dates the organic matter for periods back to about eight half-lives of the isotope, 45, years. After a long enough time the minority isotope is in an amount too small to be measured. There are about two dozen decay pairs used for dating.

The Age of the Earth

However, rather than dealing with this issue and critically evaluating Austin’s other procedures including the unacceptable mineral and glass impurities in his ‘fractions’ , YECs loudly proclaim that the results are discrepant with the AD eruption. They then proceed to assault the validity of the K-Ar method. Therefore, it’s not surprising that some of Austin’s dates, such as the result for the amphiboles, etc. Without properly referencing Bartelt et al.

Piltdown Man–Eanthropus dawsoni or “dawn man.” Discovered in by Charles Dawson, a medical doctor and amateur paleontologist. Dawson found a mandible and a small piece of a skull in a gravel pit near Piltdown England.

PLAY Relative dating Relative dating is used to arrange geological events, and the rocks they leave behind, in a sequence. The method of reading the order is called stratigraphy layers of rock are called strata. Relative dating does not provide actual numerical dates for the rocks. A system of dating archaeological remains and strata in relation to each other. By using methods of typing or by assigning a sequence based on the Law of Superposition, archaeologists organize layers or objects in order from “oldest” to “most recent.

Absolute dating Collective term for techniques that assign specific dates or date ranges, in calendar years, to artifacts and other archaeological finds. Dates are determined by a variety of processes, including chemical analyses as in radiocarbon dating and thermoluminescence , data correlation as in dendrochronology , and a variety of other tests.

Seriation The organization of artifacts, monuments, types, and styles into groups assumed to be distinct and representative of chronological change. Index fossil a fossil that is useful for dating and correlating the strata in which it is found. Dendrochronology A type of absolute dating. The technique is based on the fact that trees add a ring of growth annually, and counting the rings gives the age of the tree.

The rings vary in size depending on the conditions affecting trees in an area, so trees from the same region will have similar patterns of growth and can be matched with one other. When a tree ring pattern is recognized in timber, the age of that timber can be calculated and thus the approximate age of the feature or structure to which it belongs can be determined.

This method was first widely used in the American Southwest.

Potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating

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